What is DMC?


Disproportionate: A rate of contact with the juvenile justice system among juveniles of a specific minority group that is significantly different from the rate of contact for whites (i.e., non-Hispanic Caucasians) or for other minority groups. The measurement is Relative Rate Index or RRI. The RRI = minority rate/white rate.


  • An RRI of 2.31 for Hispanic or Latino at referral means that the rate of referral to juvenile court was more than two times as high as that of non-Hispanic whites in FY08.
  • An RRI of 2.73 for Black/African-American at arrest means that the rate of arrest was almost three times as high as that of non-Hispanic whites in FY08.
  • An RRI of 1.02 for Asian at delinquent finding means that the rate of delinquent finding was relatively equal as that of non-Hispanic whites in FY08.


Minority: Race and ethnicity categorized by federal government as American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander.


Contact: Are the nine points of contact in the juvenile justice system.

  • Arrest: Apprehended by law enforcement for committing a delinquent act
  • Referral: Sent to juvenile court for legal proceeding
  • Diversion: Cases involved legal proceeding but handled without filing formal charge
  • Detention: Youth held in secure detention facilities at some point during court proceeding
  • Petition: Case is formally charged
  • Delinquent Findings: Adjudicated or found to be delinquent in juvenile court
  • Probation Placement: Placed on formal or court-ordered supervision
  • Confinement in Secure Facilities: Youth are placed in secure correctional facilities
  • Transfer to Adult Court: Waiver to adult court

Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Subcommittee

The DMC Subcommittee is part of the Utah Board of Juvenile Justice (UBJJ) and tasked with addressing the overrepresentation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system. The Subcommittee’s mission is to eliminate the disproportionate representation of minority youth at all points of contact in the juvenile justice system.

Under the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA), each state may establish a State Advisory Group on juvenile justice (SAG) charged with carrying out the purposes of the Act and implement the Act’s core requirements/protections at the state and local level. The Act’s core requirements include:

  • Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders (DSO)
  • Removal of juveniles from adult jails and lock-ups
  • Sight and sound separation
  • Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC)

The DMC Subcommittee seeks advice and input from various stakeholders within the State of Utah to address this issue. The Subcommittee meets monthly except July and December. Three year plan and annual update can be found on this website. Annual data and four year trends starting FY06 are also available for your information.

Current Research

DMC Arrest and Referral Assessment Study - The purpose of this study is to conduct an assessment of local jurisdictions to identify potential contributing factors that causes the overrepresentation of minority youth at the point of arrest and referral by law enforcement. The study aims to work closely and collaboratively with loca law enforcement agencies and community stakeholders.

Please see Available Studies for past research.



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